Remembering Rumbula
November 30, 1941- December 8, 1941

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Walking among the mass graves, indicated by raised areas and stone markers, at Rumbula Forest outside of Riga Latvia
Pillar marking the path among the mass graves at Rumbula Forest.

Rumbula* Forest, near Riga, Latvia, became the mass murder site and grave of 25,000** Jews from the Riga Ghetto on November 30 and December 8, 1941 (10th and 18th of Kislev on the Jewish calendar).

Only 2 people who arrived at the Rumbula killing site escaped death. Family members of some who perished survived the war, and a number of them live today in Israel and elsewhere.

This site is an introduction to the mass murders at Rumbula Forest for educational and research purposes. It is maintained on a non-commercial basis.

The acts that took place in Rumbula Forest in late 1941 are documented here through historical accounts and personal memoirs. Also included are accounts of modern-day anti-semitic activity in Latvia and of the dedication of the Rumbula Forest Memorial in 2002.
* Rumbuli Forest in German.
** 22,000 shot at Rumbula Forest, 2000 murdered during the "relocation" from the Ghetto and on the road to Rumbula on those 2 days and a train-load from Berlin of 1000 Jews killed.    Source: Ezergailis, also Rhodes.

Memorial to a 10 year old girl who perished at Rumbula, Rumbula Forest outside of Riga Latvia, october 2002. A loved one's personal memorial to a 10 year old girl who was killed at Rumbula.

Walking among the mass graves, indicated by raised areas and stone markers, at Rumbula Forest outside of Riga Latvia
Pillar marking the path among the mass graves at Rumbula Forest.



Rumbula Web Exhibit - Museum of Tolerance 

Yad Vashem Summary on Rumbuli (Rumbula)
Chronology of the Holocaust 1939- 1941

Rumbula Remembered - City Paper of The Baltic States 

An Account of Rumbula - The Nizkor Project (Shofar)

Riga Ghetto and Rumbula

Rumbula on the 800th Anniversary of Riga 

Reuters News Story on 60th Anniversary of Rumbula
(at page, click on Latvia remembers Holocaust)

The 1000 Deported From Berlin To Riga/Rumbuli November 30, 1941
WWII Plus 55 - David H. Lippman (scroll to paragraphs 10 and 11)

Michael Genchik
Mr. Genchik lost most of his family at Rumbula and later maintained the
graves there.

The Riga Massacres - The Holocaust Chronicle

Memories of a 13 year Old Boy - Michael Kor
The Riga Ghetto and Rumbula



This is the beginning of a list on the web of those who perished at Rumbula,
may their memory be for a blessing. More names will be added as they are
received from Latvia and other sources. Please click here to go to this page.



Eye Witness - Steven Springfield (click on his name please)

His Escape and His Mother's Death - Henry Daniller  

Escape from March to Rumbula by Riva Shefer - CNN



Rumbula by Ojars Vacietis (excerpt)



Photo of an Early Homemade Star of David Memorial at Rumbula

Description of Rumbula Site After WWII
Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, 1990 Macmillan Publishing Company
Museum of Tolerance, Simon Wiesenthal Center

Photo of Soviet Marker at Rumbula Forest in Russian, Latvian and Yiddish

Photo of Young Jews Preparing Rumbula Forest Site for a Monument in 1969

Photo of Rumbula Memorial After WWII
Museum of Tolerance - Simon Wiesenthal Center

Caretaker Michael Genchik Remembers Rumbula Forest After the War

Center for Defense Information (CDI) - Johnson's Russian List
Account of Abandonment and Desecration of Rumbula Graves in the 1990's
John Mage: Riga, Rumbuli, homage to the eXile April 1, 1998

Response to John Mage by Gunars Reinis, April 5, 1998



Virtual Tour of Rumbula Memorial Dedication Ceremony

Holocaust Memorial Unveiled - Lewes Links
[click on Latvia or scroll down to Latvia]

No Man Has To Follow Orders - U.S. Ambassador Brian E. Carlson

Shoah Memorial Goes Up in Latvia after Fierce Debate over Inscription - JTA

Latvian Jews, Local Government Spar over Inscription on a Shoah
Memorial - JTA

Wiesenthal Center Urges Mention of Latvian Collaborators on Memorial

Latvia Unveils Holocaust Memorial - BBC News

Outside Riga, a Memorial to 25,000 Murdered Jews is Unveiled
Associated Press - via Latvian Mailer


SINCE 1945

Explosions at Memorial at Rumbula - The Baltic Times

Bombings and Vandalism at Jewish Sites in Latvia in 1998

Anti-Semitism in the Baltic Republics

ADL Honors President of Latvia

ADL's National Director Resigns from Latvian Commission on Historians
Due to Latvia's Treatment of the Holocaust



 Rumbula Viewed From The Riga Ghetto - Book Excerpt
    The Ghetto of Riga and Continuance - A Survivor's Memoir
    By Alfred Winter, copyright 1998

The Holocaust in Latvia, 1941-1944 : The Missing Center
By Andrew Ezergailis
Historical Institute of Latvia in association with the USHMM
465 pp. $50.00
A detailed account of Rumbula by historian Andrew Ezergailis
 Chapter 8 - Rumbula

A more recent article by Andrew Ezergailis



 A Time in Silence
Rumbula Forest plays a key role in this moving 6-minute short film about an aged Holocaust survivor and her middle-aged daughter. This website figures into the plot. Although a work of fiction rather than of history, the general themes in A Time of Silence are recognizable from real life. This film from the U.K.'s Stampede ( was screened screened at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival. Instruction: Click on the scrolling mini-digi sign and select Time in Silence.



I Survived Rumbuli
By Frida Michelson
U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum Shop Memorial Council, February 1982.
Frida Michelson, as only one of two to survive, felt G-d chose her as a witness. Frida Michelson’s riveting story details the horrors she experienced and describes her survival of the actions at Rumbula. It goes on to tell of her survival of years of Nazi occupation with the aid of a series of righteous Latvians, a number of whom were Seventh Day Adventists

The Holocaust in Latvia, 1941-1944 : The Missing Center
By Andrew Ezergailis
Historical Institute of Latvia in association with the USHMM
465 pp. $50.00
 Excerpt - Introduction

The Murder of the Jews in Latvia, 1941-1945
By Bernhard Press, Laimdota Mazzarins (Translator)
Northwestern University Press
222 pp. $18.00

The SS-Einsatzgruppen and The Invention of the Holocaust

By Richard Rhodes
335 pp. $27.50
Washington Post review of Masters of Death, by Deborah E. Lipstadt
New York Times Review of Masters of Death, by Walter Reich



Einsatzgruppen - Mobile Killing Units

The Holocaust in Latvia - Riga Ghetto

The Holocaust in Latvia - Bikernieki Forest

The Holocaust in Latvia - Riga Choral Synagogue

History of Jewish Latvia - Overview

History of Jewish Latvia - Riga

This site links to information on the web about Rumbula and related topics. We are not responsible for
the information provided at linked pages.
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